Intercellular routes of absorption SlideShare

Absorption 1. Kailas K. Mali 2. Contents Cell membrane Absorption mechanism, Oral drug absorption, pH partition hypothesis, Factors affecting: Physicochemical, dosage form related, patient related. Drug absorption through other routes: transdermal, nasal, buccal, Ocular sublingual. In-vitro, In-situ and In-vivo models for drug absorption studies. 2Absorption of Drug4/13/201 ROUTE/ ONSET OF ACTION ABSORPTION MECHANISM EXAMPLES Inhalation (2-3mins) Passive diffusion, pore transport Salbutamol, cromolyn, Beclomethasone Intramuscular (10-20mins) Passive diffusion, endocytosis, pore transport Phenytoin, digoxin, steroids and antibiotics, etc. Intranasal (3-5mins) Passive diffusion, pore transport Phenylpropylamine, antihistamines Intraocular Passive diffusion Atropine, pilocarpine, adrenaline, etc. Vaginal Passive diffusion Steroids, contraceptives, metronidazole. Transcellular route/ Intracellular route: Drug delivery through this route passes from corneocytes which has highly hydrated keratin creating hydrophilic pathway. The drug passes through the corneocytes of stratum corneum. Hydrophilic drugs pass through intracellular pathways. Intercellular route: In intercellular pathway drug diffuses through the continuous lipid matrix present between the cells. Lipophilic drugs traverse the stratum corneum via the intercellular route Non invasive routes of drug drug absorption 1) Buccal / Sublingual administration- 2) Rectal administration 3) Topical administration 4) Intramuscular administration 5) Subcutaneous administration 6) Pulmonary administration 7) Intranasal administration 8) Intraocular administration 9) Vaginal administratio • Presence of hair follicles - more in follicles regions. • Trauma- increase absorption. • Hydration - promotes absorption. • Age - infants absorbs more than adults. • Ionized and soluble drug absorbs more. • Permeation enhancer increase absorption. • Exposer to chemical enhance absorption by shedding off of stratum corneum

ABSORPTIONAbsorption is the movement of a drug from the administration site into the blood

Absorption - slideshare

Absorption of drugs by non-oral routes - SlideShar

  1. Adme 1. Absorption 2. MOVEMENT OF DRUG MOLECULES ACROSS CELL BARRIERS• There are four main ways by which small molecules cross cell membranes : - by diffusing directly through the lipid - by diffusing through aqueous pores formed by special proteins (aquaporins) that traverse the lipid - by combination with a transmembrane carrier protein that binds a molecule on one side of the.
  2. istration are intravenous, subcutaneous, and intramuscular. Absorption from subcutaneous and intramuscular sites occurs by simple diffusion along the gradient from drug depot to plasma
  3. Oral Route is considered to be the most common route of drug delivery to obtain a systemic effect. However, with the recent developments in the field of drug delivery, it has been found that.

•An accessory route by which fluid and protein can flow from interstitial spaces to the blood • Important in preventing edema • Lymph is derived from interstitial fluid that flows into the lymphatics • Major route for absorption of nutrients from the GI tract • Plays important role in the immune System (lymph nodes) 5/19/2021 31 Drug delivery through topical or systemic route faces a number of challenges limiting their success. Advancements in drug design, drug formulation and devices have led to successful products. But the scientists have experimented with alternate routes of drug delivery that can overcome barriers presented by the more conventional routes Dermal Absorption. Dermal absorption is the transport of a chemical from the outer surface of the skin both into the skin and into the body. Studies show that absorption of chemicals through the skin can occur without being noticed by the worker, and in some cases, may represent the most significant exposure pathway Slide 1. Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems. Advantages - pharmacist. Skin and Skin Care Products. PHARMACOLOGY AND PRINCIPLES OF DRUG ACTION. Epidermis PPT. Pharmacokinetic Models. Airgas template. World DDS TTS Miropore - Drug Delivery Conferences. Digestion and Absorption of Food Nutrients The fluorescence intensity maps suggested a passive diffusion mechanism, most likely via an intercellular route of passage between adjacent corneocytes. Recently, our laboratory reported that the size of the intercellular space between porcine skin corenocytes is 19 nm (van der Merwe et al., 2005). Carboxylic acid and PEG-amine-coated QD 565.

Transdermal drug delivery (1) - slideshare

The effects of the intraluminal application of DFAIII on net Ca absorption, LY permeability and relative TEER in rat intestinal mucosa are shown in Figure 1.Net Ca transport from the luminal side to basolateral side in the jejunum, cecum and colon was increased dose-dependently with the application of DFAIII (P < 0.05).LY permeability was also increased in a dose-dependent manner in the four. Alimentary Routes - oral, rectal, sublingual, buccal Advantages Disadvantages - Most common - Convenient, economical, fast - First-pass metabolism (liver) - Irregular absorption (pH, gastric emptying time, complex formation with stomach contents) - Gastrointestinal irritation - Inactivation from low pH (ex:// penicillin absorption or pre-systemic elimination of other potential route for administration. The recent development in the drug delivery has intensified the investigation of mucosal drug delivery. Such route includes oral, buccal, ocular, nasal and pulmonary routes etc[1,2]. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems are delivery systems, which utilized th

Absorption of drugs through non oral routes - SlideShar

D RUG P K A , LIPOPHILICITY & G I PH According to pH PARTITION THEORY, the process of absorption of drug compounds of molecular weight greater than 100 Daltons transported across the biomembrane by passive diffusion depend upon the following factor Dissociation constant of the drug i.e., pKa of the drug Lipid solubility of the unionized drug i. Absorption of drugs , 1. Absorption of drugs Dr Shinde Viraj Ashok Jr 1 Pharmacology 2. Overview Definition Mechanism of drug absorption Factors affecting drug absorption & bioavailability 3. Pharmacokinetics Process 3 4

Routes of drug administration - SlideShar

Absorption Project Final - slideshare

Slide 1 NST110: Advanced Toxicology Lecture 2: Absorption and Distribution Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME): NST110, Toxicology Department of Nutritiona The nasal pathway represents a non-invasive administration route of active pharmaceutical ingredients for local, systemic and CNS action. Although, the nasal epithelium appears as a tight barrier, the tightness of the intercellular junctional complex of the nasal mucosa is low due to leaky epithelial tissue (Deli, 2009; Wolburg et al., 2008) this will help in understanding absorption of drug other than oral route

Percutaneous absorption of drugs. TIPS - inaugural issur, 1979 of Jacques Wepierre and Jean-Paul Marty Laboratoire de Pharmacodynamie, Centre d 'Etudes Pharmaceutiques, rue fean-Baptisie Clement, 92290 Chatenay-Malabry, France Percutaneous absorption is the passage of drugs through the cutaneous structures and the extracellular medium from the. The main advantages of this route are the ease of administration by the patient, the potential for high absorption rate and hence high bioavailability rate, rapid onset of action, and avoidance of the problems associated with the oral route of administration (Huang and Wang, 2006). The lungs have several favorable properties as a site of. Abstract and Figures. Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) is one of the systems lying under the category of controlled drug delivery, in which the aim is to deliver the drug through the skin.

Pathway for skin penetration

Solute absorption across the intestinal epithelium can be transcellular [i.e. through the intestinal cell (enterocyte), crossing the apical and basolateral membranes] or paracellular (i.e. crossing the epithelium between cells) ().Intestinal glucose absorption has been studied for nearly a century (e.g. McCance and Madders, 1930; Wertheimer, 1934), and the modern view that it is driven. In pharmacology, bioavailability is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction (%) of an administered drug that reaches the systemic circulation.. By definition, when a medication is administered intravenously, its bioavailability is 100%. However, when a medication is administered via routes other than intravenous, its bioavailability is generally lower than that of intravenous due to. absorption and, 1 drug absorption distribution and elimination, 100 top pharmacodynamics multiple choice questions and, absorption and distribution of drugs slideshare net, frcr oncology part 1 all free practice mcqs frcr INTRODUCTION. Among the various routes of drug delivery, the oral route is perhaps the one mostly preferred by patients and clinicians. Based on our current understandings of biochemical and physiological aspects of absorption and metabolism, many drugs, cannot be delivered effectively through the conventional oral route, because after administration are subjected to pre-systemic clearance. This study examined the pharmacokinetics of levodopa and carbidopa in the rat after different modes of administration. The drugs were given simultaneously by the intravenous, intraarterial, oral, duodenal, and intraperitoneal routes, as single doses. The ratio of levodopa to carbidopa given was alwa

2. pharmacokinetics - SlideShar

The permeability of the cell monolayer can also be studied by measuring the passive transport of small hydrophilic molecules across the monolayer. Such molecules mainly pass the monolayer via the paracellular route, i.e. through the tight junctions (TJ), and can be used to get information about the leakiness of the TJs TDD has many advantages over other conventional routes of drug delivery [10,11,12]. It can provide a non-invasive alternative to parenteral routes, thus circumventing issues such as needle phobia . A large surface area of skin and ease of access allows many placement options on the skin for transdermal absorption

| Transcellular and intercellular routes of drug delivery

Delivery of Proteins Routes of Administration and Absorptio

  1. The absorption peaks of the main functional groups in the skin were shown in Fig. 3. The following skin bands were obtained from skin intercellular lipids and corneocytes were of interest (Hasanovic et al., 2011): any O H and N H stretches from protein, water and lipid were observed between 3000 and 3600 cm −1
  2. Dermal Absorption. Dermal absorption is the transport of a chemical from the outer surface of the skin both into the skin and into the body. Studies show that absorption of chemicals through the skin can occur without being noticed by the worker, and in some cases, may represent the most significant exposure pathway
  3. Skin Penetration Routes There are three pathways to cross the stratum corneum, which is the main barrier for topical anesthetic agent delivery:[ 11 ] Intercellular route (through the intercellular spaces of the cornified keratinocytes), para or transcellular route (through the cornified cells) and transappendageal route or shunt pathway.
  4. Diffusion of uncharged compounds across a membrane or any homogeneous barrier is described by Fick's first and second laws. The first law J = −D (ΔC/Δδ) states that the steady-state flux of a compound (J = moles/cm/s) per unit path length (δ, cm) is proportional to the concentration gradient (ΔC) and the diffusion coefficient (D, cm 2 /s). The negative sign indicates that the net flux.
  5. istration have the fastest and . Drugs (5 days ago) Also, which route of medication ad
  6. The structure of the skin, the main absorption routes (transappendageal, transcellular, or intercellular), and the mathematical principles of skin absorption (mainly based on Fick's laws of diffusion) are briefly reviewed. In vitro methodologies used to assess skin absorption are presented and several variables are discussed that have to be.
  7. All plasma proteins are found in lymph. The protein concentration of lymph from all parts of the alimentary tract tends to be high e.g. thoracic duct lymph ha

The most efficient route of diffusion through the stratum corneum is the intercellular route among the lipid lamellae. Chemicals that follow this route have a MW lower than 500 Da and are lipophilic. BPS, D-8, and BPA have similar MWs in the range of 250-300 Da. BPA and D-8 have in addition similar log K ow , while BPS has a lower log K ow The time course of fluid absorption into the circulation requires more detailed investigation in a wider range of tissues; and the corresponding microstructure of the transendothelial pathway needs to be better defined, including estimates of the aquaporin contribution to the overall microvascular L P, which appears to vary considerably. 32 The. Rubisco is a large enzyme with a molecular mass of approximately 550 kD. The maximum rate of CO 2 fixation (i.e. ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate [RuBP] carboxylation) at CO 2 saturation is only 15 to 30 mol CO 2 mol −1 Rubisco protein s −1 at 25°C. Affinity to CO 2 is also low, and the K m, K c, at 25°C in the absence of oxygen is comparable to the CO 2 concentration in water equilibrated with.

Difference Between Paracellular and Transcellular

  1. DRUG DELIVERY ROUTES ACROSS HUMAN SKIN. Drug molecules in contact with the skin surface can penetrate by three potential pathways: through the sweat ducts, via the hair follicles and sebaceous glands (collectively called the shunt or appendageal route), or directly across the stratum corneum (Fig. 1).The relative importance of the shunt or appendageal route versu
  2. In both mammalian and avian species the paracellular route of absorption of water soluble compounds has been visualized using either autoradiography View large Download slide. Plots of mean Contribution of solvent drag through intercellular junctions to absorption of nutrients by the small intestine of the rat. J. Membr. Biol. 100, 12
  3. Active Absorption of Water: In this process the root cells play active role in the absorption of water and metabolic energy released in the form of ATP during metabolic processes (respiration) is consumed. Active absorption may be of two types (i) Osmotic absorption i.e., when water is absorbed from the soil into the xylem of the root
  4. or importance because of their relatively small area (less than 0.1% of the total surface) . Substances that are preferentially transported via the transcellular route have also to cross the intercellular spaces
  5. Brain drug transport and cerebrospinal fluid. The brain has no lymphatic system. The CSF of the brain is produced at the choroid plexi of the ventricles, moves over the surface of the brain, and is absorbed into the general circulation across the arachnoid villi into the superior sagittal sinus of the venous bloodstream. 8, 9 In the human brain, there is about 100 to 140 mL of CSF, and this.

The other two routes cross the SC, either through the corneocytes (transcellular route), or between corneocyte cells through the lipidic cement (intercellular route). It is noteworthy that penetration of external molecules into the skin takes place simultaneously by these three parallel penetration pathways peroral route of drug absorption

Adme - SlideShar

Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral deliver Absorption Absorption Light passing through a material medium will a) travel at a slower v = c/n where n(f) = dispersion b) have some absorption depending on the - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 47918d-MjVi Drug administered between the skin and muscle. Injections or implants Less likelihood of causing tissue damage at the injection site in food producing animals - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 4adcf-NzM0 Secretory vesicles from the Golgi body carry the enzymes to the cell surface and of Golgi apparatus secretion. Exocytosis. Golgi apparatus. Secretory - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 158b5a-NjAw

3. It is well-developed, several cells deep and parenchymatous. 4. The cells are thin-walled, rounded in shape and leave many intercellular spaces. 5. Just below the epiblema are present 2 to 6 layers of collenchyma in old roots. This represents exodermis. 6. Remaining part of the cortex is parenchymatous INTERCELLULAR ROUTES OF ABSORPTION PERSORPTION MUCUS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES. 2 Physiological Pharmaceutics INTRODUCTION All living things are made of cells small individually functional units which, in higher organisms, are organised into collections called tissues. A typical cell consists largely o An exposure route exposure routeThe way a chemical pollutant enters an organism after contact, e.g., by ingestion, inhalation, or dermal absorption. is the way that a contaminant enters an individual or population after contact (IPCS, 2004). Typically, exposure occurs by one of three exposure routes-inhalation, ingestion, or dermal. Dermal exposure can result from skin contact with. Low-frequency ultrasound can significantly increase the permeability of human skin to many drugs, including high molecular weight proteins e.g. insulin,

Pharmacokinetics: The Dynamics of Drug Absorption

If the lumen of the small intestine is occluded by inflating a balloon a short distance below the pyloric sphincter, the plasma levels of glucose from intercellular lipid matrix. The corneocyte is composed of water and protein core encapsulated within a lipid envelope. Model can simulate partitioning and absorption through hair follicular (HF) pathway depending on affinity to sebum and molecular size. While the drug diffuses through intercellular lipid matrix, depending on the drug to cel Introduction. The association of the fat body (FB) with the maturation of oocytes in insects bearing meroistic ovaries has been previously studied [].Most of the attention was focused on the morphology and the physiology of the FB cells, on the trophocytes [], and primarily in holometabolous insects bearing meroistic polytrophic ovaries.In bees, the morphology of FB trophocytes from the Apini. View Script.docx from ENVIRONMEN 201 at Mapúa Institute of Technology. SCRIPT Slide 1: Ill be discussing Transport Through skin or Skin Absorption Slide 2: Skin absorption is basically A Route B

(PDF) Alternative Routes of Drug Administration

  1. Fundamentals Ch. 3 Pg. 83 Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free
  2. istration is deter
  3. Title: Disorders of Absorption: Introduction Author: Internet Last modified by: User Created Date: 7/10/2011 7:30:38 AM Document presentation format - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 5f406e-Njg0
  4. -In the example: Formula A has rapid and greater absorption than formulas B and C. (slide 35, slide 36 for paper) Lecture 3: Principles and Concepts of Pharmacology Drug Distribution You should be able to -List and discuss the factors affecting absorption -Predict the relative ease of permeation of a weak acid or base from a knowledge of its.
  5. ated food and drinks, or swallowing of particles cleared from the RT

Create Font Barcode. Barcode Application Guide. Barcoding for C#; How-To for Barcode in C# ASP.NET Barcode in C#.NET WinForms Barcode in C# Crystal Report Barcode in C# Reporting Services Barcode in C# RDLC Report Barcode in C# Excel Barcode in C# Word Barcode in C#. Barcoding for VB.NE Main Workshop Day 1 - WRIB. Main Workshop DAY 1 - Tuesday Sep. 28, 2021: 7am - 6:30pm - Discussion Topic List Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. The three types of omega-3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-linolenic acid (ALA) (found in plant oils), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (both commonly found in fish. Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for plants and animals. Unfortunately, deficiency of Zn in humans has increased on a global scale. The main reason of this micronutrient deficiency is dietary intakes of food with low Zn levels. Adoption of biofortification approaches would result in Zn enrichment of target tissue to a considerable extent. However, there is a basic need to understand Zn.

DRUG PERMEATION ROUTES In the past decade much investigation took place on the route of drug penetration. The permeation of the drugs through the skin includes the diffusion through the epidermis and skin appendages. However, now recognized that major determinant route is through intercellular spaces [5,8-10] I am interested in the delivery of drugs and particles to the nose and lungs, particularly the use of in vivo-reflective in vitro cell culture models of the airway epithelium; the barrier to drug absorption.This is a long-standing interest of mine; having worked on the Caco-2 cell culture model of the intestine, I was interested in developing a similar model of the nose and/or lung

Video: Drug delivery in ocular diseases: Barriers and strategie

Slide 3: Applications of pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetics uses mathematical equations to describe what the body does to the drug or toxin in terms of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. Clinically, we can apply pharmacokinetics to study the relationships between drug dose, drug concentrations and the resulting effects over time The absorption of specific lanthanide ions in the NIR part of the spectrum is also highly advantageous for biological applications as it reduces the photodamage to the surrounding tissue compared. To study the mechanism of chelant-metal complexes to be absorbed into plant roots in the presence of different concentration chelating agents, the sites, pathways, and mechanism of absorption of Cu-EDDS complex ([S, S']-ethylene diamine disuccinic acid) in maize (Zea mays L.) primary roots were systematically studied. The results showed that, at low concentrations of the Cu-EDDS complex. Arsenic. Arsenic is one of the most important heavy metals causing disquiet from both ecological and individual health standpoints (Hughes et al., 1988).It has a semimetallic property, is prominently toxic and carcinogenic, and is extensively available in the form of oxides or sulfides or as a salt of iron, sodium, calcium, copper, etc. (Singh et al., 2007)

The mechanism of permeation can involve the passage through the epidermis itself known as transepidermal absorption. Permeation by the transepidermal route first involves partitioning into the stratum corneum. Diffusion then takes place across this tissue . Most substances diffuse across the stratum corneum via the intercellular lipoidal route Drug absorption through the skin is enhanced if the drug substance is in There are three primary mechanisms of topical drug absorption: transcellular, intercellular, and follicular. Most drugs pass through the torturous path around corneocytes and through the A ground glass slide is fixed on this block. An excess of emulgel (about 2 gm. The inhalation of aerosols, their penetration and deposition into the lungs, their absorption and activity is affected by the severity of pulmonary disease. European Medical . Remedies (current) The Peripheral Neuropathy Solution. Effective Treatments for Peripheral Neuropathy 5 Routes Of Medication Administration Hawach. Drugs (5 days ago) 5 Routes Of Medication Administration. There are many factors that affect the absorption of drugs in the body, such as different routes of medication, dosages, and administration schedules, etc.The process by which a drug enters the blood circulation from the site where it is used is called absorption

Drug - Drug - Reproductive system drugs: Several sites in the reproductive system either are vulnerable to chemicals or can be manipulated by drugs. Within the central nervous system, sensitive sites include the hypothalamus (and adjacent areas of the brain) and the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Regions outside the brain that are vulnerable include the gonads (i.e., the ovaries in the. With the emergence of coronavirus disease-2019, researchers have gained interest in the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) in acute respiratory distress syndrome; however, the mechanisms of the therapeutic effects of MSCs are unclear. We have previously reported that adipose-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) strengthen the barrier function of the pulmonary vessels in scaffold. the route by which proteins penetrate the layers of cells which envelope the oocyte, to determine their final distribution within the oocyte, and thus to characterize further the mechanism of protein uptake. Evidence is presented that the blood proteins reach the oocyte via an intercellular route, tha

The recent knowledge regarding the mechanism of fat absorption in human body has been briefly discussed below: . Most dietary fat of either vegetable or animal origin comprises of triglycerides in which glycerol is com­bined in low-energy ester linkages with three fatty acids and the fatty acids are of even number of carbon atoms One gram of emulgel was the same standard plot by putting the value of absorbance in placed between the two glass slides and load of 500 g was the standard equation [38]. applied for 5 min to expel air and to provide a uniform film of Drug Content = (Concentration × Dilution Factor × Volume the emulgel between the two slides Start studying lecture 8. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools